Types of fasting
There are five types of fasting.
1. Farj Fasting: Which again has four types-
A) Fasting in the month of Ramadan.
b) If the fast of Ramadan is broken due to any reason, it is fast to perform his Qaza.
c) Fasting 60 fasts as an expiation for skipping the fast of Ramadan without a reason recognized by Shariah.
E) If you have promised to fast, then observe it.
2. Wajib Fast: If you break a nafal fast, it is obligatory to make up for it later.
3. Sunnah Fasting: Fasting on the 9th and 10th of Muharram.
4. Mostahab Fasting: It is mostahab to observe six separate fasts in the month of Shawwal, on the 13th, 14th, and 15th of each lunar month, on Mondays and Thursdays of each week, according to some Imams. However, according to Imam Abu Hanifa (r.a.), the six fasts of Shawwal, whether together or separately, are makruh. Fasting for twelve months after one day is also called Mustahab by many. Nabi Hazrat Daud (a.s.) used to fast for twelve months in a row, so this fast is called ‘Shawme Daud’. Mustahab is that if you do this worship, it is virtuous and if you don’t, there is no sin. However, the virtues of Mustahab Fasting were recognized by Hazrat Nabi Karim (SAW).
5. Nafal Fasting: Mustahab and Nafal are very close acts of worship. Nafal in simple sense is that worship which is obligatory, wajib, not sunnah is done with the intention of virtue. Same with fasting. However, if you break a Nafal fast, it becomes obligatory.
These five types of Nishat have to be done separately. It is not acceptable to make any intention other than obligatory fasting during the month of Ramadan. If someone makes a wajib, nafal, mustahab intention during the month of Ramadan, it will still be performed as a fard. While there is a provision to make niyat till noon for Ramadan fast, it is necessary to make niyat at the time of Sehri for the rest. Of course, if the intention to fast is made in the afternoon by fixing the day of nafal fasting, then the conditions of the intention will be fulfilled. But it is important to make the intention from the night for Mannat fasting without fixing the Qaza fast or the day.