Alparslan Buyuk Seljucklu Episode 49 English Subtitles Under the post
The History of the Great Seljuk Empire
The history of human society is the history of change and there are many different theories which look at change and development. This paper intends to investigate the history of the Great Seljuk Empire (1037-1194 CE), the events that led to its rise and decline in light of the cyclical theory, especially those propounded by two sociologists: Ibn Khaldun and Vilfredo Pareto. The former is a medieval thinker while the latter is a contemporary.
In doing so, the paper aims to make a comparison between Ibn Khaldun and Vilfredo Pareto. The principles of thematic content analysis are followed on the translated works of the authors to achieve the objective. The rise of the Seljuks is understood with the concept of ‘aşabiyah in the nomadic pastoral society (umran badawi) and its disappearance in the sedentary society (‘umran hadarī).
Similarly, the struggle of power within the Seljuk Empire is deconstructed with the understanding of the concepts of ‘lions’ and ‘foxes’ as propounded by Vilfredo Pareto in his explanation on the circulation of elites.
Keywords: Cyclical theory; Ibn Khaldun; Vilfredo Pareto; the Great Seljuk Empire; and Islamic history.
Change is an ever-present phenomenon, irrespective of time and space. Heraclitus, a Greek philosopher, hinted at this fact by this emphatic statement, “There is nothing permanent except change.” Every society, whether primitive or modern, goes through change as it is the law of nature. The change could be both positive or negative, and it should be understood within the context of a society.
In the study of social change and development, there are many theories that one could adapt to understand change, such as evolutionism, cyclical theory, historical materialism, or modernization theory. The focus of this paper is on cyclical theory. The basic premise of the cyclical theory is that social and historical change is not recorded in a linear line but rather in a cycle; and like any other theory, it consists of various analogies or metaphors such as the biological cycle or astronomical cycle (Sztompka, 1993, pp. 3-4).
However, before proceeding any further, it is essential to mention an old argument that has existed between the sociologists in the study of ‘social change and history’ as this will be the tacit theme of the paper. Robert Nisbet, in his book, social change and history (1969), argued that the study of social change could not be distinguishable from the intellectual activity we call ‘history’ (Nisbet, 1969).
He argued that the theories of social change are not a legitimate discipline, while history is a legitimate discipline (see Boudon, 1986, pp. 5-9). However, today, we find that in every textbook of sociology, there is a dedicated chapter for social change and development, including theories. While Nisbet’s book has been praised by many, it has also received considerable. criticism, most notably from Gerhard Lenski (Lenski, 1976).
It should be noted that the founders of sociology laid the theories of the new discipline based on the organic metaphor indicating the importance of theories in the study of social change (see Sztompka, 1993, pp. 99-125).
Alparslan Episode 49 full episode …………